Materials 2010, 3(12), 5311-5319; doi:10.3390/ma3125311
Article

Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia) Wood with Portland Cement

1 Ecosystem Science and Management Program, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9, Canada 2 Department of Physics, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9, Canada 3 Chemistry, Environmental Science and Environmental Engineering Programs, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, V2N 4Z9, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2010; in revised form: 15 December 2010 / Accepted: 16 December 2010 / Published: 17 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Materials in Civil Constructions)
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Abstract: The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX). CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.
Keywords: compatibility index; hydration; lodgepole pine; Portland cement; wood

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pasca, S.A.; Hartley, I.D.; Reid, M.E.; Thring, R.W. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia) Wood with Portland Cement. Materials 2010, 3, 5311-5319.

AMA Style

Pasca SA, Hartley ID, Reid ME, Thring RW. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia) Wood with Portland Cement. Materials. 2010; 3(12):5311-5319.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pasca, Sorin A.; Hartley, Ian D.; Reid, Matthew E.; Thring, Ronald W. 2010. "Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia) Wood with Portland Cement." Materials 3, no. 12: 5311-5319.

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