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Materials 2018, 11(6), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060989

Wheat Straw-Derived N-, O-, and S-Tri-doped Porous Carbon with Ultrahigh Specific Surface Area for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

1
School of Resource and Environment, Henan University of Engineering, No. 1, Xianghe Road, Zhengzhou 451191, China
2
School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Lushan South Street 932, Yuelu District, Changsha 410083, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomass-Derived Carbon Materials)
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Abstract

Recently, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been greeted by a huge ovation owing to their very high theoretical specific capacity (1675 mAh·g−1) and theoretical energy density (2600 Wh·kg−1). However, the full commercialization of Li-S batteries is still hindered by dramatic capacity fading resulting from the notorious “shuttle effect” of polysulfides. Herein, we first describe the development of a facile, inexpensive, and high-producing strategy for the fabrication of N-, O-, and S-tri-doped porous carbon (NOSPC) via pyrolysis of natural wheat straw, followed by KOH activation. The as-obtained NOSPC shows characteristic features of a highly porous carbon frame, ultrahigh specific surface area (3101.8 m2·g−1), large pore volume (1.92 cm3·g−1), good electrical conductivity, and in situ nitrogen (1.36 at %), oxygen (7.43 at %), and sulfur (0.7 at %) tri-doping. The NOSPC is afterwards selected to fabricate the NOSPC-sulfur (NOSPC/S) composite for the Li-S batteries cathode material. The as-prepared NOSPC/S cathode delivers a large initial discharge capacity (1049.2 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C), good cycling stability (retains a reversible capacity of 454.7 mAh·g−1 over 500 cycles at 1 C with a low capacity decay of 0.088% per cycle), and superior rate performance (619.2 mAh·g−1 at 2 C). The excellent electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of structural restriction and multidimensional chemical adsorptions for cooperatively repressing the polysulfides shuttle. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat straw; ultrahigh specific surface area; polysulfides shuttle; tri-doped porous carbon; Li-S batteries wheat straw; ultrahigh specific surface area; polysulfides shuttle; tri-doped porous carbon; Li-S batteries
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, F.; Ma, L.; Ren, J.; Zhang, M.; Luo, X.; Li, B.; Song, Z.; Zhou, X. Wheat Straw-Derived N-, O-, and S-Tri-doped Porous Carbon with Ultrahigh Specific Surface Area for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. Materials 2018, 11, 989.

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