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Materials 2018, 11(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11020192

The Mechanical Properties of Biocompatible Apatite Bone Cement Reinforced with Chemically Activated Carbon Fibers

1
Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research (OSIM), Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Löbdergraben 32, 07743 Jena, Germany
2
Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry (FMZ), University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, 97070 Würzburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a well-established bone replacement material in dentistry and orthopedics. CPC mimics the physicochemical properties of natural bone and therefore shows excellent in vivo behavior. However, due to their brittleness, the application of CPC implants is limited to non-load bearing areas. Generally, the fiber-reinforcement of ceramic materials enhances fracture resistance, but simultaneously reduces the strength of the composite. Combining strong C-fiber reinforcement with a hydroxyapatite to form a CPC with a chemical modification of the fiber surface allowed us to adjust the fiber–matrix interface and consequently the fracture behavior. Thus, we could demonstrate enhanced mechanical properties of CPC in terms of bending strength and work of fracture to a strain of 5% (WOF5). Hereby, the strength increased by a factor of four from 9.2 ± 1.7 to 38.4 ± 1.7 MPa. Simultaneously, the WOF5 increased from 0.02 ± 0.004 to 2.0 ± 0.6 kJ∙m−2, when utilizing an aqua regia/CaCl2 pretreatment. The cell proliferation and activity of MG63 osteoblast-like cells as biocompatibility markers were not affected by fiber addition nor by fiber treatment. CPC reinforced with chemically activated C-fibers is a promising bone replacement material for load-bearing applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium phosphate cement; damage tolerant cement; carbon fiber reinforcement; interface control; fiber–matrix interaction calcium phosphate cement; damage tolerant cement; carbon fiber reinforcement; interface control; fiber–matrix interaction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Boehm, A.V.; Meininger, S.; Tesch, A.; Gbureck, U.; Müller, F.A. The Mechanical Properties of Biocompatible Apatite Bone Cement Reinforced with Chemically Activated Carbon Fibers. Materials 2018, 11, 192.

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