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Materials 2018, 11(1), 139; doi:10.3390/ma11010139

Effects of Physical and Chemical States of Iron-Based Catalysts on Formation of Carbon-Encapsulated Iron Nanoparticles from Kraft Lignin

1
Department of Sustainable Bioproducts, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
2
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Carbon Materials)
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Abstract

Effects of physical and chemical states of iron-based catalysts on the formation of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) synthesized thermally from kraft lignin were investigated. Experimental results indicated that if solution-based iron nitrate (FeN) was used as an iron source for the catalyst, CEINs observed were α-Fe and γ-Fe-based cores encapsulated by few layers graphitic-carbon (mostly 1–5 layers) and the majority of these CEINs were embedded in amorphous carbon matrix. The formation of graphitic-carbon shells is believed based on the dissolution and precipitation mechanism of amorphous carbon acting as the carbon source. If solid-based iron nanoparticles (FePs) were used as the catalyst, CEINs observed were α-Fe, γ-Fe, and Fe3C-based cores encapsulated with tangled graphitic-carbon nanoribbons and carbon tubules and the majority of these CEINs were found along the edge of amorphous carbon matrix. The growth of tangled graphitic-carbon nanoribbons and carbon tubules is based on a chemical vapor decomposition process, i.e., the carbonaceous gases from kraft lignin decomposition served as the carbon source. View Full-Text
Keywords: kraft lignin; biopolymer; iron nanoparticles; iron nitrate; thermal treatment; carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles kraft lignin; biopolymer; iron nanoparticles; iron nitrate; thermal treatment; carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, X.; Yan, Q.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Cai, Z. Effects of Physical and Chemical States of Iron-Based Catalysts on Formation of Carbon-Encapsulated Iron Nanoparticles from Kraft Lignin. Materials 2018, 11, 139.

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