Next Article in Journal
Silk: Optical Properties over 12.6 Octaves THz-IR-Visible-UV Range
Next Article in Special Issue
Photoactive Nanomaterials Inspired by Nature: LTL Zeolite Doped with Laser Dyes as Artificial Light Harvesting Systems
Previous Article in Journal
Corrosion Prediction with Parallel Finite Element Modeling for Coupled Hygro-Chemo Transport into Concrete under Chloride-Rich Environment
Previous Article in Special Issue
Peanut Shell-Derived Carbon Solid Acid with Large Surface Area and Its Application for the Catalytic Hydrolysis of Cyclohexyl Acetate
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Materials 2017, 10(4), 355; doi:10.3390/ma10040355

Ice as a Green-Structure-Directing Agent in the Synthesis of Macroporous MWCNTs and Chondroitin Sulphate Composites

Materials Science Factory, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, C/Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049-Madrid, Spain
Departamento de Física, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, Gavea 22451-900, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Laboratory of Interfaces for Neural Repair, Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos, Servicio de Salud de Castilla-La Mancha, Finca de la Peraleda s/n, 45071-Toledo, Spain
Departamento de Tecnología Química y Energética, Tecnologia Química y Ambiental y Tecnología Mecánica y Química Analítica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933-Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mady Elbahri
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5060 KB, uploaded 28 March 2017]   |  


The incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into chondroitin sulphate-based scaffolds and the effect on the structural, mechanical, conductive, and thermal properties of the resulting scaffolds is investigated. Three-dimensional hierarchical materials are prepared upon the application of the ice segregation-induced self-assembly (ISISA) process. The use of ice as structure-directing agents avoids chemicals typically used for this purpose (e.g., surfactants, block copolymers, etc.), hence, emphasising the green features of this soft-templating approach. We determine the critical parameters that control the morphology of the scaffolds formed upon ice-templating (i.e., MWCNTs type, freezing conditions, polymer and MWCNT concentration). MWCNTs are surface functionalized by acidic treatment. MWCNT functionalization is characterized by Raman, Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and porosity studies reveal that MWCNT content modifies the morphology of the macroporous structure, which decreases by increasing MWCNT concentration. Differences in scaffold morphology should be translated into their conductivity and mechanical properties. As a general trend, the Young’s modulus and the electrical conductivity of the scaffolds increase with the MWCNT content. Preliminary biocompatibility tests with human osteoblast-like cells also reveal the capability of these structures to support cell growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: chondroitin sulphate; freeze-casting; hierarchical materials; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; porous materials; scaffold chondroitin sulphate; freeze-casting; hierarchical materials; multi-walled carbon nanotubes; porous materials; scaffold

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nardecchia, S.; Serrano, M.C.; García-Argüelles, S.; Maia Da Costa, M.E.H.; Ferrer, M.L.; Gutiérrez, M.C. Ice as a Green-Structure-Directing Agent in the Synthesis of Macroporous MWCNTs and Chondroitin Sulphate Composites. Materials 2017, 10, 355.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top