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Materials 2017, 10(2), 213; doi:10.3390/ma10020213

Fabrication of Lead-Free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 Thin Films by Aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lorena Pardo
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Abstract

Piezoelectric ceramics are widely used in actuator applications, and currently the vast majority of these devices are based on Pb ( Zr , Ti ) O 3 , which constitutes environmental and health hazards due to the toxicity of lead. One of the most promising lead-free material systems for actuators is based on Bi 0 . 5 Na 0 . 5 TiO 3 (BNT), and here we report on successful fabrication of BNT thin films by aqueous chemical solution deposition. The precursor solution used in the synthesis is based on bismuth citrate stabilized by ethanolamine, NaOH , and a Ti-citrate prepared from titanium tetraisopropoxide and citric acid. BNT thin films were deposited on SrTiO 3 and platinized silicon substrates by spin-coating, and the films were pyrolized and annealed by rapid thermal processing. The BNT perovskite phase formed after calcination at 500 °C in air. The deposited thin films were single phase according to X-ray diffraction, and the microstructures of the films shown by electron microscopy were homogeneous and dense. Decomposition of the gel was thoroughly investigated, and the conditions resulting in phase pure materials were identified. This new aqueous deposition route is low cost, robust, and suitable for development of BNT based thin film for actuator applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3; bismuth sodium titanate; BNT; NBT; aqueous; sol-gel; chemical solution deposition (CSD); lead-free; thin-film; piezoelectric; phase purity Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3; bismuth sodium titanate; BNT; NBT; aqueous; sol-gel; chemical solution deposition (CSD); lead-free; thin-film; piezoelectric; phase purity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Christensen, M.; Einarsrud, M.-A.; Grande, T. Fabrication of Lead-Free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 Thin Films by Aqueous Chemical Solution Deposition. Materials 2017, 10, 213.

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