Next Article in Journal
Effect of Zirconia Nanoparticles in Epoxy-Silica Hybrid Adhesives to Join Aluminum Substrates
Previous Article in Journal
Double Biocatalysis Signal Amplification Glucose Biosensor Based on Porous Graphene
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1138; doi:10.3390/ma10101138

Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation

1
Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Material and Chemical, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
2
Department of Information and Communication System Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Okinawa College, Okinawa 905-2192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1544 KB, uploaded 27 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices—including acoustic ones—because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF3 through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal. View Full-Text
Keywords: scandium; smelting process; microwave irradiation scandium; smelting process; microwave irradiation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fujii, S.; Tsubaki, S.; Inazu, N.; Suzuki, E.; Wada, Y. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation. Materials 2017, 10, 1138.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top