Next Article in Journal
Double Biocatalysis Signal Amplification Glucose Biosensor Based on Porous Graphene
Next Article in Special Issue
Functionalization of Biomedical Ti6Al4V via In Situ Alloying by Cu during Laser Powder Bed Fusion Manufacturing
Previous Article in Journal
Electronic Energy Meter Based on a Tunnel Magnetoresistive Effect (TMR) Current Sensor
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Processing Parameters on Surface Roughness of Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V via Electron Beam Melting
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Materials 2017, 10(10), 1136; doi:10.3390/ma10101136

On the Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser-Melted Stainless Steel

Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport 4222, Australia
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science, Aalen University of Applied Sciences, 73430 Aalen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6018 KB, uploaded 26 September 2017]   |  


The thorough description of the peculiarities of additively manufactured (AM) structures represents a current challenge for aspiring freeform fabrication methods, such as selective laser melting (SLM). These methods have an immense advantage in the fast fabrication (no special tooling or moulds required) of components, geometrical flexibility in their design, and efficiency when only small quantities are required. However, designs demand precise knowledge of the material properties, which in the case of additively manufactured structures are anisotropic and, under certain circumstances, inhomogeneous in nature. Furthermore, these characteristics are highly dependent on the fabrication settings. In this study, the anisotropic tensile properties of selective laser-melted stainless steel (1.4404, 316L) are investigated: the Young’s modulus ranged from 148 to 227 GPa, the ultimate tensile strength from 512 to 699 MPa, and the breaking elongation ranged, respectively, from 12% to 43%. The results were compared to related studies in order to classify the influence of the fabrication settings. Furthermore, the influence of the chosen raw material was addressed by comparing deviations on the directional dependencies reasoned from differing microstructural developments during manufacture. Stainless steel was found to possess its maximum strength at a 45° layer versus loading offset, which is precisely where AlSi10Mg was previously reported to be at its weakest. View Full-Text
Keywords: tensile strength; hardness; microstructure; grain morphology; epitaxial grain growth; scan strategy; directional dependencies tensile strength; hardness; microstructure; grain morphology; epitaxial grain growth; scan strategy; directional dependencies

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hitzler, L.; Hirsch, J.; Heine, B.; Merkel, M.; Hall, W.; Öchsner, A. On the Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser-Melted Stainless Steel. Materials 2017, 10, 1136.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top