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Materials 2017, 10(1), 25; doi:10.3390/ma10010025

Microwave-Assisted Polyol Synthesis of Water Dispersible Red-Emitting Eu3+-Modified Carbon Dots

1
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Engesserstrasse 15, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
2
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Javier Narciso
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5485 KB, uploaded 29 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Eu3+-modified carbon dots (C-dots), 3–5 nm in diameter, were prepared, functionalized, and stabilized via a one-pot polyol synthesis. The role of Eu2+/Eu3+, the influence of O2 (oxidation) and H2O (hydrolysis), as well as the impact of the heating procedure (conventional resistance heating and microwave (MW) heating) were explored. With the reducing conditions of the polyol at the elevated temperature of synthesis (200–230 °C), first of all, Eu2+ was obtained resulting in the blue emission of the C-dots. Subsequent to O2-driven oxidation, Eu3+-modified, red-emitting C-dots were realized. However, the Eu3+ emission is rapidly quenched by water for C-dots prepared via conventional resistance heating. In contrast to the hydroxyl functionalization of conventionally-heated C-dots, MW-heating results in a carboxylate functionalization of the C-dots. Carboxylate-coordinated Eu3+, however, turned out as highly stable even in water. Based on this fundamental understanding of synthesis and material, in sum, a one-pot polyol approach is established that results in H2O-dispersable C-dots with intense red Eu3+-line-type emission. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon dot; europium; microwave; polyol; surface conditioning carbon dot; europium; microwave; polyol; surface conditioning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dong, H.; Kuzmanoski, A.; Wehner, T.; Müller-Buschbaum, K.; Feldmann, C. Microwave-Assisted Polyol Synthesis of Water Dispersible Red-Emitting Eu3+-Modified Carbon Dots. Materials 2017, 10, 25.

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