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Energies 2016, 9(9), 716; doi:10.3390/en9090716

Hybrid LSA-ANN Based Home Energy Management Scheduling Controller for Residential Demand Response Strategy

1
Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environments, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia
2
General Directorate of Electrical Energy Production-Basrah, Ministry of Electricity, Basrah 61001, Iraq
3
Department of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Basrah University for Gas and Oil, Qarmat Ali Campus, Basrah 61004, Iraq
4
Department of Electrical Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain 15551, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Pau
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Home Energy Management)

Abstract

Demand response (DR) program can shift peak time load to off-peak time, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and allowing energy conservation. In this study, the home energy management scheduling controller of the residential DR strategy is proposed using the hybrid lightning search algorithm (LSA)-based artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the optimal ON/OFF status for home appliances. Consequently, the scheduled operation of several appliances is improved in terms of cost savings. In the proposed approach, a set of the most common residential appliances are modeled, and their activation is controlled by the hybrid LSA-ANN based home energy management scheduling controller. Four appliances, namely, air conditioner, water heater, refrigerator, and washing machine (WM), are developed by Matlab/Simulink according to customer preferences and priority of appliances. The ANN controller has to be tuned properly using suitable learning rate value and number of nodes in the hidden layers to schedule the appliances optimally. Given that finding proper ANN tuning parameters is difficult, the LSA optimization is hybridized with ANN to improve the ANN performances by selecting the optimum values of neurons in each hidden layer and learning rate. Therefore, the ON/OFF estimation accuracy by ANN can be improved. Results of the hybrid LSA-ANN are compared with those of hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO) based ANN to validate the developed algorithm. Results show that the hybrid LSA-ANN outperforms the hybrid PSO based ANN. The proposed scheduling algorithm can significantly reduce the peak-hour energy consumption during the DR event by up to 9.7138% considering four appliances per 7-h period. View Full-Text
Keywords: lightning search algorithm (LSA); home energy management system (HEMS); artificial neural network (ANN); load scheduling; residential demand response (DR) lightning search algorithm (LSA); home energy management system (HEMS); artificial neural network (ANN); load scheduling; residential demand response (DR)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, M.S.; Mohamed, A.; Homod, R.Z.; Shareef, H. Hybrid LSA-ANN Based Home Energy Management Scheduling Controller for Residential Demand Response Strategy. Energies 2016, 9, 716.

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