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Energies 2016, 9(8), 591; doi:10.3390/en9080591

Multi-Objective Optimal Sizing for Battery Storage of PV-Based Microgrid with Demand Response

1
State Key Laboratory for Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Changping District, Beijing 102206, China
2
Electric Power Research Institute, China Southern Power Grid Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gabriele Grandi
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 28 July 2016
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Abstract

In order to solve the influence of uncertain photovoltaic power (PV) on the stable operation of microgrid (MG), demand response (DR) and battery energy storage system (BESS) need to be introduced simultaneously into the operation optimal scheduling of PV-based microgrid (PV-MG). Therefore, it is of great significance for commercial investment decisions of PV-MG to consider the influence of DR on BESS optimal sizing. Under the peak-valley time-of-use (TOU) price, this paper builds cross-time DR models based on price elasticity matrix. Furthermore, through the introduction of DR and BESS into PV-MG scheduling optimization, the MG investment and benefit model is proposed. Considering the constraint condition such as co-ordination of supply and demand, electricity price elasticity and energy loss of storage system, the improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is utilized to solve the multi-objective optimal allocation model of the BESS with the target of maximum PV consumptive rate and annual net profits. The optimization method was applied to a PV-MG in Guangdong. Through the regulation and control effect of demand response and BESS on load distribution, the uncertainties PV power can be suppressed so as to improve the PV system consumptive level, which is of great guiding significance for BESS optimal sizing under this situation. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-of-use (TOU) price; multi-period demand response (DR); battery energy storage system (BESS); photovoltaic consumptive rate; investment and benefit model; multi-objective optimization; non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) algorithm time-of-use (TOU) price; multi-period demand response (DR); battery energy storage system (BESS); photovoltaic consumptive rate; investment and benefit model; multi-objective optimization; non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) algorithm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhou, N.; Liu, N.; Zhang, J.; Lei, J. Multi-Objective Optimal Sizing for Battery Storage of PV-Based Microgrid with Demand Response. Energies 2016, 9, 591.

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