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Energies 2016, 9(8), 584; doi:10.3390/en9080584

Environmental and Economic Performance of an Li-Ion Battery Pack: A Multiregional Input-Output Approach

1
Electrotechnical Engineering and Energy Technology, Mobility and Automotive Technology Research Group (MOBI), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
2
Research Centre on Energy, Environment and Technologies (CIEMAT), Energy Department, Energy Systems Analysis Unit, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5 1, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Haolin Tang
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
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Abstract

In this paper, the environmental and economic impacts of the life cycle of an advanced lithium based energy storage system (ESS) for a battery electric vehicle are assessed. The methodology followed to perform the study is a Multiregional Input–Output (MRIO) analysis, with a world IO table that combines detailed information on national production activities and international trade data for 40 countries and a region called Rest of the World. The life cycle stages considered in the study are manufacturing, use and recycling. The functional unit is one ESS with a 150,000 km lifetime. The results of the MRIO analysis show the stimulation that the life cycle of the EES has in the economy, in terms of production of goods and services. The manufacturing is the life cycle stage with the highest environmental load for all the impact categories assessed. The geographical resolution of the results show the relevance that some countries may have in the environmental performance of the assessed product even if they are not directly involved in any of the stages of the life cycle, proving the significance of the indirect effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiregional input-output analysis; life cycle assessment; batteries; electric vehicles multiregional input-output analysis; life cycle assessment; batteries; electric vehicles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sanfélix, J.; de la Rúa, C.; Schmidt, J.H.; Messagie, M.; Van Mierlo, J. Environmental and Economic Performance of an Li-Ion Battery Pack: A Multiregional Input-Output Approach. Energies 2016, 9, 584.

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