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Energies 2016, 9(7), 558; doi:10.3390/en9070558

Indirect Load Control for Energy Storage Systems Using Incentive Pricing under Time-of-Use Tariff

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO), 105 Munji-Ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34056, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mashrur (Ronnie) Chowdhury
Received: 1 May 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4920 KB, uploaded 19 July 2016]   |  


Indirect load control (ILC) is a method by which the customer determines load reduction of electricity by using a price signal. One of the ILCs is a time-of-use (TOU) tariff, which is the most commonly used time-varying retail pricing. Under the TOU tariff, the customer can reduce the energy cost through an energy storage system (ESS). However, because this tariff is fixed for several months, the ESS operation does not truly reflect the wholesale market price, which could widely fluctuate. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an incentive pricing method in which the load-serving entity (LSE) gives the incentive pricing signal to the customers with ESSs. Because the ESS charging schedule is determined by the customer through ILC, a bilevel optimization problem that includes the customer optimization problem is utilized to determine the incentive pricing signal. Further, the bilevel optimization problem is reformulated into a one-level problem to be solved by an interior point method. In the proposed incentive scheme: (1) the social welfare increases and (2) the increased social welfare can be equitably divided between the LSE and the customer; and (3) the proposed incentive scheme leads the customer to voluntarily follow the pricing signal. View Full-Text
Keywords: bilevel programming; demand-side management; energy storage system (ESS); indirect load control (ILC) bilevel programming; demand-side management; energy storage system (ESS); indirect load control (ILC)

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jeong, M.-G.; Moon, S.-I.; Hwang, P.-I. Indirect Load Control for Energy Storage Systems Using Incentive Pricing under Time-of-Use Tariff. Energies 2016, 9, 558.

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