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Energies 2016, 9(7), 498; doi:10.3390/en9070498

Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

1
National Active Distribution Network Technology Research Center (NANTEC), Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
4
The Key Laboratory of Systems and Control of CAS, Institute of Systems Science, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sheng S. Zhang
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 22 June 2016 / Accepted: 24 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4653 KB, uploaded 29 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery; flexible group; converter efficiency; energy utilization efficiency battery; flexible group; converter efficiency; energy utilization efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Diao, W.; Jiang, J.; Liang, H.; Zhang, C.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, L.; Mu, B. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems. Energies 2016, 9, 498.

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