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Energies 2016, 9(6), 462; doi:10.3390/en9060462

Optimal Scheduling of Energy Storage System for Self-Sustainable Base Station Operation Considering Battery Wear-Out Cost

Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea
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Academic Editor: Luca Chiaraviglio
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Networking)
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Abstract

A self-sustainable base station (BS) where renewable resources and energy storage system (ESS) are interoperably utilized as power sources is a promising approach to save energy and operational cost in communication networks. However, high battery price and low utilization of ESS intended for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) necessitates active utilization of ESS. This paper proposes a multi-functional framework of ESS using dynamic programming (DP) for realizing a sustainable BS. We develop an optimal charging and discharging scheduling algorithm considering a detailed battery wear-out model to minimize operational cost as well as to prolong battery lifetime. Our approach significantly reduces total cost compared to the conventional method that does not consider battery wear-out. Extensive experiments for several scenarios exhibit that total cost is reduced by up to 70.6% while battery wear-out is also reduced by 53.6%. The virtue of the proposed framework is its wide applicability beyond sustainable BS and thus can be also used for other types of load in principle. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy storage system (ESS); battery wear-out cost; dynamic programming (DP); optimal scheduling; demand response (DR); sustainable base station (BS); peak shift; photovoltaic (PV) energy storage system (ESS); battery wear-out cost; dynamic programming (DP); optimal scheduling; demand response (DR); sustainable base station (BS); peak shift; photovoltaic (PV)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Choi, Y.; Kim, H. Optimal Scheduling of Energy Storage System for Self-Sustainable Base Station Operation Considering Battery Wear-Out Cost. Energies 2016, 9, 462.

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