Next Article in Journal
Integrated Combined Heat and Power System Dispatch Considering Electrical and Thermal Energy Storage
Previous Article in Journal
Coordination Control Strategy for AC/DC Hybrid Microgrids in Stand-Alone Mode
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Energies 2016, 9(6), 449; doi:10.3390/en9060449

Variability Characteristics of European Wind and Solar Power Resources—A Review

Department of Electric Power Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim N-7034, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Frede Blaabjerg
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3032 KB, uploaded 20 June 2016]   |  


This paper reviews the most recent and relevant research into the variability characteristics of wind and solar power resources in Europe. The background for this study is that wind and solar resources will probably constitute major components of the future European power system. Such resources are variable, and EU plans to balance the variability with more grids and demand response. Thus, planning for the future power system requires an in-depth understanding of the variability. Resource variability is a multi-faceted concept best described using a range of distinct characteristics, and this review is structured on the basis of seven of these: Distribution Long-Term (hours to years), Distribution Short-Term (less than one hour), Step Changes, Autocorrelation, Spatial Correlation, Cross Correlation and Predictable Patterns. The review presents simulations and empirical results related to resource variability for each of these characteristics. Results to date reveal that the variability characteristics of the future power system is limited understood. This study recommends the development of a scheme for greater systematic assessment of variability. Such a scheme will contribute to the understanding of the impacts of variability and will make it possible to compare alternative power production portfolios and impacts of grid expansions, demand response and storage technologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: variable renewable energy; wind power production; solar power production; the future power production in Europe variable renewable energy; wind power production; solar power production; the future power production in Europe

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Graabak, I.; Korpås, M. Variability Characteristics of European Wind and Solar Power Resources—A Review. Energies 2016, 9, 449.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top