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Energies 2016, 9(5), 364; doi:10.3390/en9050364

How Much Detail Should We Use to Compute Societal Aggregated Exergy Efficiencies?

Maretec, Environment and Energy Scientific Area, DEM, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
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Academic Editor: Jean-Pierre Bédécarrats
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 3 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
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Abstract

The current method used for calculating societal aggregated exergy efficiencies is reviewed. Cooling is introduced as an end-use category; conversion efficiencies for heating processes are obtained for each energy carrier; and electricity shares per end-use are retrieved for each sector, improving the accuracy of the estimated values of aggregated exergy efficiencies. We show that: (1) cooling uses are a relevant end-use in Portugal and that their introduction decreased overall efficiency by 3.4% in 2009; and (2) disaggregating the heating second law efficiencies for each energy carrier has a significant effect on the aggregated efficiencies of the country, decreasing aggregated efficiency by 1.3% in 2009. We studied two other factors that showed no significant impact on aggregated exergy efficiency: a technological lag of 10 years in the efficiency of stationary mechanical drive devices and the use of a year-specific ambient temperature to compute exergy efficiencies of heating processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy; exergy; efficiency; useful exergy; energy use; energy carriers energy; exergy; efficiency; useful exergy; energy use; energy carriers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Palma, M.; Sousa, T.; Guevara, Z. How Much Detail Should We Use to Compute Societal Aggregated Exergy Efficiencies? Energies 2016, 9, 364.

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