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Energies 2016, 9(4), 270; doi:10.3390/en9040270

Optimal Siting of Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles Based on Fuzzy Delphi and Hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approaches from an Extended Sustainability Perspective

1
and
1,2,*
1
School of Economics and Management, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
2
School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1041, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Gerard Pecht
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3152 KB, uploaded 6 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Optimal siting of electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs) is crucial to the sustainable development of electric vehicle systems. Considering the defects of previous heuristic optimization models in tackling subjective factors, this paper employs a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) framework to address the issue of EVCS siting. The initial criteria for optimal EVCS siting are selected from extended sustainability theory, and the vital sub-criteria are further determined by using a fuzzy Delphi method (FDM), which consists of four pillars: economy, society, environment and technology perspectives. To tolerate vagueness and ambiguity of subjective factors and human judgment, a fuzzy Grey relation analysis (GRA)-VIKOR method is employed to determine the optimal EVCS site, which also improves the conventional aggregating function of fuzzy Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacijia I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR). Moreover, to integrate the subjective opinions as well as objective information, experts’ ratings and Shannon entropy method are employed to determine combination weights. Then, the applicability of proposed framework is demonstrated by an empirical study of five EVCS site alternatives in Tianjin. The results show that A3 is selected as the optimal site for EVCS, and sub-criteria affiliated with environment obtain much more attentions than that of other sub-criteria. Moreover, sensitivity analysis indicates the selection results remains stable no matter how sub-criteria weights are changed, which verifies the robustness and effectiveness of proposed model and evaluation results. This study provides a comprehensive and effective method for optimal siting of EVCS and also innovates the weights determination and distance calculation for conventional fuzzy VIKOR. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle charging station; optimal siting; fuzzy Delphi method; combination weights; fuzzy Grey relation analysis-Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacijia I Kompromisno Resenje (fuzzy GRA-VIKOR); sustainability; sensitivity analysis electric vehicle charging station; optimal siting; fuzzy Delphi method; combination weights; fuzzy Grey relation analysis-Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacijia I Kompromisno Resenje (fuzzy GRA-VIKOR); sustainability; sensitivity analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, H.; Li, N. Optimal Siting of Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles Based on Fuzzy Delphi and Hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approaches from an Extended Sustainability Perspective. Energies 2016, 9, 270.

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