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Energies 2016, 9(4), 226; doi:10.3390/en9040226

Thermo-Economic Analysis of Zeotropic Mixtures and Pure Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery

Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics (LTTT), Center of Energy Technology (ZET), University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth 95440, Germany
The original paper was presented in: Heberle, F.; Brüggemann, D. Thermo-economic analysis of zeotropic mixtures and pure working fluids in organic Rankine cycles for waste heat recovery. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Seminar on ORC Power Systems (ASME-ORC 2015), Brussels, Belgium, 12–14 October 2015.
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Academic Editor: Sylvain Quoilin
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
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Abstract

We present a thermo-economic analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for waste heat recovery. A case study for a heat source temperature of 150 °C and a subcritical, saturated cycle is performed. As working fluids R245fa, isobutane, isopentane, and the mixture of isobutane and isopentane are considered. The minimal temperature difference in the evaporator and the condenser, as well as the mixture composition are chosen as variables in order to identify the most suitable working fluid in combination with optimal process parameters under thermo-economic criteria. In general, the results show that cost-effective systems have a high minimal temperature difference ΔTPP,C at the pinch-point of the condenser and a low minimal temperature difference ΔTPP,E at the pinch-point of the evaporator. Choosing isobutane as the working fluid leads to the lowest costs per unit exergy with 52.0 €/GJ (ΔTPP,E = 1.2 K; ΔTPP,C = 14 K). Considering the major components of the ORC, specific costs range between 1150 €/kW and 2250 €/kW. For the zeotropic mixture, a mole fraction of 90% isobutane leads to the lowest specific costs per unit exergy. A further analysis of the ORC system using isobutane shows high sensitivity of the costs per unit exergy for the selected cost estimation methods and for the isentropic efficiency of the turbine. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy conversion systems; Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC); waste heat recovery; thermo-economic analysis; working fluids; zeotropic mixtures energy conversion systems; Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC); waste heat recovery; thermo-economic analysis; working fluids; zeotropic mixtures
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Heberle, F.; Brüggemann, D. Thermo-Economic Analysis of Zeotropic Mixtures and Pure Working Fluids in Organic Rankine Cycles for Waste Heat Recovery. Energies 2016, 9, 226.

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