Next Article in Journal
Impact of Urban Morphology on Infiltration-Induced Building Energy Consumption
Next Article in Special Issue
Control Strategies with Dynamic Threshold Adjustment for Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Considering the Train and Substation Characteristics in Urban Rail Transit
Previous Article in Journal
Application of the Extension Taguchi Method to Optimal Capability Planning of a Stand-alone Power System
Previous Article in Special Issue
Distributed Energy Storage Using Residential Hot Water Heaters
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Energies 2016, 9(3), 175;

Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads

School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AY, UK
School of Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Anglesea Road, Portsmouth PO1 3DJ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: K. T. Chau
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1575 KB, uploaded 9 March 2016]   |  


In this paper, a power management strategy (PMS) has been developed for the control of energy storage in a system subjected to loads of random duration. The PMS minimises the costs associated with the energy consumption of specific systems powered by a primary energy source and equipped with energy storage, under the assumption that the statistical distribution of load durations is known. By including the variability of the load in the cost function, it was possible to define the optimality criteria for the power flow of the storage. Numerical calculations have been performed obtaining the control strategies associated with the global minimum in energy costs, for a wide range of initial conditions of the system. The results of the calculations have been tested on a MATLAB/Simulink model of a rubber tyre gantry (RTG) crane equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and subjected to a test cycle, which corresponds to the real operation of a crane in the Port of Felixstowe. The results of the model show increased energy savings and reduced peak power demand with respect to existing control strategies, indicating considerable potential savings for port operators in terms of energy and maintenance costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy storage; power management; optimization; stochastic loads; flywheel; RTG crane energy storage; power management; optimization; stochastic loads; flywheel; RTG crane

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pietrosanti, S.; Holderbaum, W.; Becerra, V.M. Optimal Power Management Strategy for Energy Storage with Stochastic Loads. Energies 2016, 9, 175.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top