- freely available
Energies 2016, 9(2), 86; doi:10.3390/en9020086
2. Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Electric Vehicles (EVs)
2.1. Environmental Aspects of Transportation
2.2. Environmental Impact of Delivering Goods in Urban Areas
2.3. Decarbonizing the Last-Mile Delivery Process with the Use of EVs
3. Strategic and Planning Issues Related to the Use of EVs
3.1. Different Kinds of Recharging Stations
3.2. Recharging Station Location
3.3. Capacity of Recharging Stations
3.4. Fleet Size and Mix
4. Emerging Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) Operational Issues Related to the Use of EVs
4.1. Economic Issues of EVs
4.2. Fleet size and Mix Issues of EVs
4.3. Charging Networks Issues of EVs
4.4. Routing Issues of EVs
5. Solving Approaches for VRPs with EVs
6. Other Related and Emergent Issues
Conflicts of Interest
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|Environmental||(1) Including the cost of externalities (noise, air pollution, infrastructure wear, etc.) in L&T activities.|
|(2) Analyzing how the increasing use of EVs reduces the environmental impact of L&T activities. Exploring new environmentally-sustainable yet efficient ways of doing freight deliveries in urban areas. In particular, considering energy cost and carbon footprint in Vehicle Routing Problems. Studying the environmental cost of manufacturing EVs as well as producing the energy needed to power them.|
|(3) Measuring the effect of using small EVs (e.g., electric bikes, drones, etc.) to perform urban last mile distribution.|
|Strategic and Planning||(1) Analyzing different EV related technologies and infrastructures (e.g., standard EV vs. hydrogen vehicles).|
|(2) Computing the necessary recharging stations, both for standard EVs as well as for hydrogen vehicles, and analyzing their integration in the transport network, i.e., number and type of stations, location, capacity, etc.|
|(3) Determining the optimal combination of EVs and internal combustion engine vehicles (fleet size and mix problem). In particular, developing new optimization approaches for the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem.|
|(4) Exploring potential uses of renewably-generated electricity to power hydrogen vehicles.|
|(5) Quantifying the benefits of horizontal cooperation among stakeholders of EV fleets (e.g., fleet manager, auto manufacturer, electricity supplier, etc.).|
|Operational||(1) Analyzing the impact of EVs recharging times in Vehicle Routing Problems with time-related constraints.|
|(2) Comparing battery swapping vs. battery recharging strategies, and proposing the right combination of both. In particular comparing these strategies in Vehicle Routing Problems with EVs.|
|(3) Considering the new issues derived from the driving-range limitations of EVs. In particular, developing new optimization approaches for the Vehicle Routing Problem with multiple driving-range constraints.|
|Fleet size and mix||(1) Determine the number and type of EVs to be purchased. |
(2) Determine the ideal composition of the heterogeneous fleet.
|(1) Environmental standards and price incentive to acquisition of EVs. |
(2) Fixed and variable charging times.
(3) Limited budget to renew the fleet of vehicles.
|(1) Minimize the acquisition and operating costs of new EVs. |
(2) Maximize the satisfaction of customer needs.
(3) Minimize the environmental impact.
|Charging networks||(1) Determine number and geographical position of recharging stations. |
(2) Determine capacity of recharging stations.
(3) Determine technology of recharging stations (low or fast recharge).
(4) Decide between swapping or recharging of batteries.
|(1) Limited budget to install new recharging stations. |
(2) Needs of EVs to recharge or exchange batteries.
|(1) Minimize the investment and operating costs of charging networks. |
(2) Maximize the level of service to customers.
|Routing||(1) Determine the number of visits to recharging stations. |
(2) Determine the timing of visits to recharging stations.
(3) Allocate available recharging resources to vehicles in recharging stations.
(4) Select the option of recharging or swapping batteries.
|(1) Geographical position of recharging stations. |
(2) Capacity of recharging stations.
(3) Fixed or variable recharging/swapping times.
|(1) Minimize routing cost considering recharging operations. |
(2) Minimize routing times considering recharging operations.
(3) Minimize recharging and swapping costs.
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