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Correction published on 22 July 2016, see Energies 2016, 9(7), 546.

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2016, 9(2), 86; doi:10.3390/en9020086

Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges

1
Computer Science Department, Internet Interdisciplinary Institute, Open University of Catalonia, 08018 Barcelona, Spain
2
Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnológico para la Industria Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CONICET, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina
3
Statistics and Operations Research Department, Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
4
Industrial and Systems Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: K. T. Chau
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 28 January 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [591 KB, uploaded 22 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Current logistics and transportation (L&T) systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using “green” technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs). However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations for electric-based vehicles, meaning that investment decisions need to be made about the number, location, and capacity of these stations. Similarly, the limited driving-range capabilities of EVs, which are restricted by the amount of electricity stored in their batteries, impose non-trivial additional constraints when designing efficient distribution routes. Accordingly, this paper identifies and reviews several open research challenges related to the introduction of EVs in L&T activities, including: (a) environmental-related issues; and (b) strategic, planning and operational issues associated with “standard” EVs and with hydrogen-based EVs. The paper also analyzes how the introduction of EVs in L&T systems generates new variants of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem, one of the most studied optimization problems in the L&T field, and proposes the use of metaheuristics and simheuristics as the most efficient way to deal with these complex optimization problems. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; logistics and transportation; green vehicle routing problems electric vehicles; logistics and transportation; green vehicle routing problems
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Juan, A.A.; Mendez, C.A.; Faulin, J.; de Armas, J.; Grasman, S.E. Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges. Energies 2016, 9, 86.

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