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Energies 2016, 9(12), 1058; doi:10.3390/en9121058

Membrane Permeability Rates of Vanadium Ions and Their Effects on Temperature Variation in Vanadium Redox Batteries

1
School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
2
Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaoliang Wei
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Flow Batteries)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3863 KB, uploaded 14 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

The inevitable diffusion of vanadium ions across the membrane can cause considerable capacity loss and temperature increase in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) over long term operation. Reliable experimental data of the permeability rates of vanadium ions are needed for membrane selection and for use in mathematical models to predict long-term behavior. In this paper a number of ion exchange membranes were selected for detailed evaluation using a modified approach to obtain more accurate permeation rates of V2+, V3+, VO2+ and VO2+ ions. Three commercial ion exchange membranes—FAP450, VB2 and F930—are investigated. The obtained diffusion coefficients are then employed in dynamic models to predict the thermal behavior under specific operating conditions. The simulation results prove that smaller and more balanced permeability rates of V2+ and VO2+ ions are more important to avoid large temperature increases in the cell stack during stand-by periods at high states-of-charge with pumps off. View Full-Text
Keywords: permeability rates; diffusion; crossover; ion exchange membrane; vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs); capacity; side reactions permeability rates; diffusion; crossover; ion exchange membrane; vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs); capacity; side reactions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cao, L.; Kronander, A.; Tang, A.; Wang, D.-W.; Skyllas-Kazacos, M. Membrane Permeability Rates of Vanadium Ions and Their Effects on Temperature Variation in Vanadium Redox Batteries. Energies 2016, 9, 1058.

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