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An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part One: What Is the Optimum City?
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Energies 2015, 8(7), 6945-6961; doi:10.3390/en8076945

An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part Two: A Net Zero Energy Tourist Village

1
College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
2
Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mark Deinert
Received: 23 April 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 18 June 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
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Abstract

The main objective of this study is to discuss the economical and the environmental analysis of a net zero energy (NZE) tourist village in Alexandria, Egypt, by maximizing the renewable energy fraction and minimizing the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The hybrid photovoltaics (PV)/wind/diesel/battery system is found to be the optimum hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) for the proposed tourist village under the study. The optimum HRES consists of 1600 kW of PV panels (58.09% solar energy penetration), 1000 kW of wind turbines (41.34% wind energy penetration), 1000 kW of power converters, 200 kW diesel generator (only 0.57% diesel generator penetration) in addition to 2000 batteries with the capacity of 589 Ah each. The levelized cost of energy (COE) from the optimum HRES is $0.17/kWh and the total net present cost (NPC) of this system is $15,383,360. Additionally, the maximum renewable energy fraction is 99.1% and the amount of GHG emitted from the optimum HRES is only 31,289 kg/year, which is negligible in comparison with the other system configurations, therefore the optimum HRES can be considered as a green system. In addition to this, the achieved percentage of the capacity shortage and the unmet load in the optimal HRES is only 0% for both. View Full-Text
Keywords: net zero energy (NZE) tourist village; greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions; percentage of the capacity shortage; percentage of the unmet load; cost of energy (COE); net present cost (NPC) net zero energy (NZE) tourist village; greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions; percentage of the capacity shortage; percentage of the unmet load; cost of energy (COE); net present cost (NPC)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Diab, F.; Lan, H.; Zhang, L.; Ali, S. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part Two: A Net Zero Energy Tourist Village. Energies 2015, 8, 6945-6961.

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