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Energies 2015, 8(6), 5159-5181; doi:10.3390/en8065159

Estimating PV Module Performance over Large Geographical Regions: The Role of Irradiance, Air Temperature, Wind Speed and Solar Spectrum

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Via Fermi 2749, Ispra I-21027, Italy
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Academic Editor: Andrés Muñoz
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 2 June 2015
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Abstract

We present a study of how photovoltaic (PV) module performance varies on continental scale. Mathematical models have been used to take into account shallow-angle reflectivity, spectral sensitivity, dependence of module efficiency on irradiance and module temperature as well as how the module temperature depends on irradiance, ambient temperature and wind speed. Spectrally resolved irradiance data retrieved from satellite images are combined with temperature and wind speed data from global computational weather forecast data to produce maps of PV performance for Eurasia and Africa. Results show that module reflectivity causes a fairly small drop of 2\%–4\% in PV performance. Spectral effects may modify the performance by up to \(\pm 6\)\%, depending on location and module type. The strongest effect is seen in the dependence on irradiance and module temperature, which may range from \(-\)20\% to +5\% at different locations. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaic performance; energy rating; solar spectrum photovoltaic performance; energy rating; solar spectrum
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huld, T.; Amillo, A.M.G. Estimating PV Module Performance over Large Geographical Regions: The Role of Irradiance, Air Temperature, Wind Speed and Solar Spectrum. Energies 2015, 8, 5159-5181.

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