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Energies 2015, 8(6), 4667-4696; doi:10.3390/en8064667

Residual Mix Calculation at the Heart of Reliable Electricity Disclosure in Europe—A Case Study on the Effect of the RE-DISS Project

Grexel Systems Oy, Lautatarhankatu 6, FI-00580 Helsinki, Finland
Vlaamse regulator van de elektriciteits-en gasmarkt, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Observatoire des énergies renouvelables, 146 rue de l'Université, 75007 Paris, France
Energie-Control Austria, Rudolfsplatz 13a, 1010 Vienna, Austria
IT Power Consulting Ltd., St. Brandon's House 29 Great George Street, Bristol BS1 5QT, UK
Oeko-Institut e.V., Merzhauser Strasse 173, PO Box 17 71, 79017 Freiburg, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Dovì
Received: 28 January 2015 / Revised: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 25 March 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Climate Change)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1628 KB, uploaded 26 May 2015]   |  


In the EU, electricity suppliers are obliged to disclose to their customers the energy origin and environmental impacts of sold electricity. To this end, guarantees of origin (GOs) are used to explicitly track electricity generation attributes to individual electricity consumers. When part of a reliable electricity disclosure system, GOs deliver an important means for consumers to participate in the support of renewable power. In order to be considered reliable, GOs require the support of an implicit disclosure system, a residual mix, which prevents once explicitly tracked attributes from being double counted in a default energy mix. This article outlines the key problems in implicit electricity disclosure: (1) uncorrected generation statistics used for implicit disclosure; (2) contract-based tracking; (3) uncoordinated calculation within Europe; (4) overlapping regions for implicit disclosure; (5) active GOs. The improvements achieved during the RE-DISS project (04/2010-10/2012) with regard to these problems have reduced the total implicit disclosure error by 168 TWh and double counting of renewable generation attributes by 70 TWh, in 16 selected countries. Quantitatively, largest individual improvements were achieved in Norway, Germany and Italy. Within the 16 countries, a total disclosure error of 75 TWh and double counting of renewable generation attributes of 36 TWh still reside after the end of the project on national level. Regarding the residual mix calculation methodology, the article justifies the implementation of a shifted transaction-based method instead of a production year-based method. View Full-Text
Keywords: guarantee of origin; electricity disclosure; residual mix guarantee of origin; electricity disclosure; residual mix

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Klimscheffskij, M.; Van Craenenbroeck, T.; Lehtovaara, M.; Lescot, D.; Tschernutter, A.; Raimundo, C.; Seebach, D.; Timpe, C. Residual Mix Calculation at the Heart of Reliable Electricity Disclosure in Europe—A Case Study on the Effect of the RE-DISS Project. Energies 2015, 8, 4667-4696.

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