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Energies 2015, 8(5), 3815-3831; doi:10.3390/en8053815

Wheel Torque Distribution of Four-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Multi-Objective Optimization

and
†,*
Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Joeri Van Mierlo
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 17 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles and Hybrid Vehicles)
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Abstract

The wheel driving torque on four-wheel-drive electric vehicles (4WDEVs) can be modulated precisely and continuously, therefore maneuverability and energy-saving control can be carried out at the same time. In this paper, a wheel torque distribution strategy is developed based on multi-objective optimization to improve vehicle maneuverability and reduce energy consumption. In the high-layer of the presented method, sliding mode control is used to calculate the desired yaw moment due to the model inaccuracy and parameter error. In the low-layer, mathematical programming with the penalty function consisting of the yaw moment control offset, the drive system energy loss and the slip ratio constraint is used for wheel torque control allocation. The programming is solved with the combination of off-line and on-line optimization to reduce the calculation cost, and the optimization results are sent to motor controllers as torque commands. Co-simulation based on MATLAB® and Carsim® proves that the developed strategy can both improve the vehicle maneuverability and reduce energy consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: 4WDEV; wheel torque distribution; control allocation 4WDEV; wheel torque distribution; control allocation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lin, C.; Xu, Z. Wheel Torque Distribution of Four-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Multi-Objective Optimization. Energies 2015, 8, 3815-3831.

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