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Energies 2015, 8(4), 2454-2472; doi:10.3390/en8042454

Reliability Analysis Models for Differential Protection Considering Communication Delays and Errors

1
School of Automation, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, No. 9, Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210023, China
2
School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, No. 2 Sipailou, Nanjing 210096, China
3
NARI Technology Inc., No. 19, Chengxin Road, Nanjing 211106, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Josep M. Guerrero
Received: 24 November 2014 / Revised: 1 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015

Abstract

This paper proposes three probability models to assess the impact of communication delays and bit errors on differential protection. First, the mechanism of relay protection malfunction caused by communication delays and bit errors is introduced. In general, a channel’s consistent delay or bit error results in refuse-operations, while a channel’s inconsistent delay normally causes false trips. Based on the analysis of the probability distributions of communication delays and bit errors, probabilistic models of false trips and refuse-operations are proposed. Simulation results, using typical parameters, are implemented to investigate the effects of communications on the malfunction probability of differential protection. View Full-Text
Keywords: communication delay; bit error; current differential protection; false trip; refuse-operation; probability communication delay; bit error; current differential protection; false trip; refuse-operation; probability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, Y.; Li, M.; Tang, Y.; Fu, R.; Ni, M. Reliability Analysis Models for Differential Protection Considering Communication Delays and Errors. Energies 2015, 8, 2454-2472.

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