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Energies 2015, 8(3), 1865-1881; doi:10.3390/en8031865

Nanoparticle Filtration Characteristics of Advanced Metal Foam Media for a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Engine in Steady Engine Operating Conditions and Vehicle Test Modes

1
School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701, Korea
2
Alantum Corporation, 8F, Starwood B/D, 5439-1, Sangdaewon 2-dong, Joongwon-gu, Seongnam-city, Gyonggi-do 462-819, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Terese Løvås
Received: 18 November 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 February 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
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Abstract

In this study, the particle formation and reduction characteristics at the engine-out position, after a three-way catalyst (TWC) and a metal foam gasoline particulate filter (GPF), were evaluated for a gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine under part-load operating conditions. The vehicle tests were performed under the Federal Test Procedure-75 (FTP-75) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) modes. Particle number (PN) concentrations, size distributions, and the filtering efficiency with the GPF were evaluated with a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS500). Under steady engine operating conditions, the PN concentrations at the engine-out position were 9.7 × 105–2.5 × 106 N/cc. While, the PN concentrations after the GPF were 9.2 × 104–3.5 × 105 N/cc, and the PN was reduced by 77%–96%. The PN filtering efficiency with the GPF-GDI vehicle reached approximately 58% in the FTP-75 and 62% in the HWFET mode. The PN concentration of the GPF-GDI vehicle was significantly reduced to 3.95 × 1011 N/km for the FTP-75 and 8.86 × 1010 N/km for the HWFET mode. The amount of nucleation mode particles below 23 nm was substantially reduced with the GPF-GDI vehicle. The fuel economy, CO2, and regulated emissions of the GPF-GDI vehicle were equivalent to those of the base GDI vehicle under the vehicle certification modes. View Full-Text
Keywords: gasoline direct injection engine; gasoline particulate filter; particle number; sub-23 nm particles; pressure drop gasoline direct injection engine; gasoline particulate filter; particle number; sub-23 nm particles; pressure drop
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Myung, C.-L.; Kim, J.; Jang, W.; Jin, D.; Park, S.; Lee, J. Nanoparticle Filtration Characteristics of Advanced Metal Foam Media for a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Engine in Steady Engine Operating Conditions and Vehicle Test Modes. Energies 2015, 8, 1865-1881.

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