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Energies 2015, 8(12), 14098-14117; doi:10.3390/en81212417

Provision of Supplementary Load Frequency Control via Aggregation of Air Conditioning Loads

Department of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, No. 2 Sipailou, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Josep M. Guerrero
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [13535 KB, uploaded 14 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

The integration of large-scale renewable energy poses great challenges for the operation of power system because of its increased frequency fluctuations. More load frequency control (LFC) resources are demanded in order to maintain a stable system with more renewable energy injected. Unlike the costly LFC resources on generation side, the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) on the demand side become an attractive solution on account of its substantial quantities and heat-storage capacity. It generally contains air conditioners (ACs), water heaters and fridges. In this paper, the supplementary LFC is extracted by the modeling and controlling of aggregated ACs. We first present a control framework integrating the supplementary LFC with the traditional LFC. Then, a change-time-priority-list method is proposed to control power output taking into account customers’ satisfaction. Simulations on a single-area power system with wind power integration demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The impact of ambient temperature changes and customer preferences on room temperature is also involved in the discussion. Results show that the supplementary LFC provided by ACs could closely track the LFC signals and effectively reduce the frequency deviation. View Full-Text
Keywords: demand response; thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs); air conditioner (AC); load frequency control (LFC); change-time-priority-list method; renewable energy integration demand response; thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs); air conditioner (AC); load frequency control (LFC); change-time-priority-list method; renewable energy integration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, L.; Li, Y.; Wang, B.; Wang, Z.; Hu, X. Provision of Supplementary Load Frequency Control via Aggregation of Air Conditioning Loads. Energies 2015, 8, 14098-14117.

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