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Energies 2015, 8(12), 13688-13709; doi:10.3390/en81212390

Unit Commitment Model Considering Flexible Scheduling of Demand Response for High Wind Integration

1,* , 1,†
,
1,†
,
1,†
,
2,†
,
3,†
,
3,†
and
3,†
1
School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2
Nanjing Power Supply Company, No. 1 Aoti Street, Nanjing 210019, China
3
China Electric Power Research Institute, Nanjing 210096, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Neville Watson
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 21 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
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Abstract

In this paper, a two-stage stochastic unit commitment (UC) model considering flexible scheduling of demand response (DR) is proposed. In the proposed UC model, the DR resources can be scheduled: (1) in the first stage, as resources on a day-ahead basis to integrate the predicted wind fluctuation with lower uncertainty; (2) in the second stage, as resources on an intra-day basis to compensate for the deviation among multiple wind power scenarios considering the coupling relationship of DR on available time and capacity. Simulation results on the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) 5-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system indicate that the proposed model can maximize the DR value with lower cost. Moreover, different types of DR resources may vary in the contract costs (capacity costs), the responsive costs (energy costs), the time of advance notice, and the minimum on-site hours. The responsive cost is considered as the most important factor affecting DR scheduling. In addition, the first-stage DR is dispatched more frequently when transmission constraints congestion occurs. View Full-Text
Keywords: demand response; stochastic programming; wind power integration; unit commitment; uncertainty demand response; stochastic programming; wind power integration; unit commitment; uncertainty
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, B.; Liu, X.; Zhu, F.; Hu, X.; Ji, W.; Yang, S.; Wang, K.; Feng, S. Unit Commitment Model Considering Flexible Scheduling of Demand Response for High Wind Integration. Energies 2015, 8, 13688-13709.

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