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Energies 2015, 8(11), 12530-12545; doi:10.3390/en81112329

Effect of Heterogeneity in Coal Ash Chemical Composition on the Onset of Conditions Favorable for Agglomeration in Fluid Beds

1
John and Willie Leone Family, Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
2
The EMS Energy Institute, the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
3
United States Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, FE-221/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20585, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mehrdad Massoudi
Received: 10 September 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 4 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Coal Combustion and Gasification)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3017 KB, uploaded 4 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Ash agglomeration issues that arise due to the sticking of slag-wetted, colliding particles have been creating operational difficulties and monetary losses for the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) industry. Difficulties have been experienced in the detection of slag-liquid at the low operating temperatures in fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) and predicting the agglomeration behavior of fuel. This study aims to study the effect of heterogeneity in ash composition on the detection of slag-liquid in FBCs. It quantifies the slag-liquid amounts at the particle-level, under oxidizing environments, by dividing the bulk fuel into density classes. FactSage thermodynamic simulations of each of the particle classes, along with experimental validation of the trends with thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) and high temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) were performed. The results obtained can be used to estimate the stickiness of particles in the development of ash agglomeration models based on particle collisions. The study of these particle classes shows that particle classes with specific minerals can form low temperature eutectics and lead to onset of slag-liquid formation at temperatures below those predicted by bulk analysis alone. Comparison of the differences in slag-liquid formation tendencies under reducing and oxidizing environments is also presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluidized bed combustors (FBCs); oxidizing; reducing; deposition; mineral matter transformations; computational thermodynamics fluidized bed combustors (FBCs); oxidizing; reducing; deposition; mineral matter transformations; computational thermodynamics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Khadilkar, A.B.; Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V. Effect of Heterogeneity in Coal Ash Chemical Composition on the Onset of Conditions Favorable for Agglomeration in Fluid Beds. Energies 2015, 8, 12530-12545.

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