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Energies 2015, 8(10), 11515-11530; doi:10.3390/en81011515

Optimal Tilt Angle of Photovoltaic Arrays and Economic Allocation of Energy Storage System on Large Oil Tanker Ship

1
College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, China
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan
3
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tapas Mallick
Received: 21 August 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 October 2015 / Published: 15 October 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [887 KB, uploaded 15 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

This study optimizes the tilt angle of photovoltaic (PV) panels on a large oil tanker ship system and considers the impact of partial shading to improve the performance of the PV system. This work presents a novel method that considers the difference between the expected and real outputs of PV modules to optimize the size of energy storage system (ESS). The method also takes into account the cost of wasted power, the capital cost of the system, fuel cost and the CO2 emissions. Unlike on land, power generation using a PV on a ship depends on the date, latitude and longitude of the navigation. Accordingly, this work considers a route from Dalian in China to Aden in Yemen, accounting for the seasonal and geographical variations of solar irradiation. This proposed method adopts five conditions associated with the navigation route to model the total shipload. Various cases are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. View Full-Text
Keywords: tilt angle; photovoltaic (PV) panels; oil tanker ship system; energy storage system (ESS); CO2 emissions tilt angle; photovoltaic (PV) panels; oil tanker ship system; energy storage system (ESS); CO2 emissions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lan, H.; Dai, J.; Wen, S.; Hong, Y.-Y.; Yu, D.C.; Bai, Y. Optimal Tilt Angle of Photovoltaic Arrays and Economic Allocation of Energy Storage System on Large Oil Tanker Ship. Energies 2015, 8, 11515-11530.

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