Next Article in Journal
Peak Operation of Cascaded Hydropower Plants Serving Multiple Provinces
Previous Article in Journal
Energy Management of a Hybrid-Power Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2015, 8(10), 11276-11294; doi:10.3390/en81011276

Four-Wire Delta Service Sinusoidal Operation and Compensation Simulator

Electrical Engineering Department, Universitat Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, Valencia 46022, Spain
Fluke Vertriebsgesellschaft (Fluke Design Center Vienna for Power and Power Quality), Liebermannstraße F01, Brunn am Gebirge A-2345, Austria
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chris Bingham
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 13 October 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [823 KB, uploaded 13 October 2015]   |  


An off-line simulator based on Excel used to evaluate the operation of four-wire delta (4WD) services as well as the effects of reactive and imbalance compensators in sinusoidal steady-state conditions is described in this paper. Voltages, currents and powers in the primary and secondary windings of the transformer as well as in the high voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) lines and in the loads are calculated through that simulator. The apparent powers in the mains, transformer and loads are determined applying Buchholz’s and unified power measurement (UPM) formulations in both scalar and vector notations. The effects of the neutral current are especially examined, in order to minimize them, and the optimal wye load distribution is determined by the simulator. The simulator provides the necessary elements of passive reactive and unbalanced compensators that optimize the 4WD transformer operation too. Those compensators are determined for each load, and they can be separately selected and included in the simulation process or not. An application example is finally used to step by step explain how the simulator runs. View Full-Text
Keywords: computer simulation; distribution transformers; transformer diagnosis; apparent power; reactive compensators; unbalance compensators computer simulation; distribution transformers; transformer diagnosis; apparent power; reactive compensators; unbalance compensators

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

León-Martínez, V.; Montañana-Romeu, J.; Radda, P.; Cazorla-Navarro, A. Four-Wire Delta Service Sinusoidal Operation and Compensation Simulator. Energies 2015, 8, 11276-11294.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top