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Energies 2014, 7(12), 8317-8337; doi:10.3390/en7128317

Energy Consumption of a Battery Electric Vehicle with Infinitely Variable Transmission

1
Dipartimento di Meccanica, Matematica e Management, Politecnico di Bari, Bari 70176, Italy
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2014 / Revised: 20 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
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Abstract

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) represent a possible sustainable solution for personal urban transportation. Presently, the most limiting characteristic of BEVs is their short range, mainly because of battery technology limitations. A proper design and control of the drivetrain, aimed at reducing the power losses and thus increasing BEV range, can contribute to make the electrification of urban transportation a convenient choice. This paper presents a simulation-based comparison of the energy efficiency performance of six drivetrain architectures for BEVs. Although many different drivetrain and transmission architectures have been proposed for BEVs, no literature was found regarding BEVs equipped with infinitely variable transmissions (IVTs). The analyzed drivetrain configurations are: single- (1G) and two-speed (2G) gear drives, half toroidal (HT) and full toroidal (FT) continuously variable transmissions (CVTs), and infinitely variable transmissions (IVTs) with two different types of internal power flow (IVT-I and IVT-II). An off-line procedure for determining the most efficient control action for each drivetrain configuration is proposed, which allows selecting the optimal speed ratio for each operating condition. The energy consumption of the BEVs is simulated along the UDC (Urban Driving Cycle) and Japanese 10-15 driving cycle, with a backward facing approach. In order to achieve the lowest energy consumption, a trade-off between high transmission efficiency and flexibility in terms of allowed speed ratios is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: fully electric vehicles; power split transmissions; infinitely variable transmissions; powertrain optimization; energy efficiency fully electric vehicles; power split transmissions; infinitely variable transmissions; powertrain optimization; energy efficiency
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bottiglione, F.; De Pinto, S.; Mantriota, G.; Sorniotti, A. Energy Consumption of a Battery Electric Vehicle with Infinitely Variable Transmission. Energies 2014, 7, 8317-8337.

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