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Energies 2014, 7(11), 7602-7619; doi:10.3390/en7117602

Exergy Destruction in Pipeline Flow of Surfactant-Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
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Abstract

Exergy destruction in adiabatic pipeline flow of surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions is investigated in five different diameter pipes. The dispersed-phase (oil droplets) concentration of the emulsions is varied from 0% to 55.14% vol. The emulsions are Newtonian in that the viscosity is independent of the shear rate. For a given emulsion and pipe diameter, the exergy destruction rate per unit pipe length increases linearly with the increase in the Reynolds number on a log-log scale in both laminar and turbulent regimes. However the slope in the turbulent regime is higher. The exergy destruction rate increases with the increase in the dispersed-phase concentration of emulsion and decreases with the increase in the pipe diameter. New models are developed for the prediction of exergy destruction rate in pipeline flow of surfactant-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. The models are based on the single-phase flow equations. The experimental data on exergy destruction in pipeline flow of emulsions shows excellent agreement with the predictions of the proposed models. View Full-Text
Keywords: emulsion; exergy; entropy; irreversibility; oil-in-water; pipeline; flow emulsion; exergy; entropy; irreversibility; oil-in-water; pipeline; flow
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pal, R. Exergy Destruction in Pipeline Flow of Surfactant-Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions. Energies 2014, 7, 7602-7619.

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