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Energies 2014, 7(10), 6306-6322; doi:10.3390/en7106306

Fast Frequency Response Capability of Photovoltaic Power Plants: The Necessity of New Grid Requirements and Definitions

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Chile, Santiago 8370451, Chile
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Received: 11 June 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 10 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
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Abstract

In recent years, only a small number of publications have been presented addressing power system stability with the increased use of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) generation around the world. The focus of these publications was on classical stability problems, such as transient and small signal stability, without considering frequency stability. Nevertheless, with increased PV generation, its effects on system frequency response during contingencies can no longer be ignored, especially in the case of weakly interconnected networks or isolated power systems. This paper addresses the impacts of large scale PV generation on the frequency stability of power systems. The positive effects of deloaded PV power plants (PV-PPs) able to support system frequency recovery during the initial seconds after major contingencies are also examined. Because this type of frequency support is not covered by current definitions, a new terminology is proposed that includes the frequency response of inertia-less generation units immediately after major power imbalances. We refer to this type of frequency support as fast frequency response (FFR). Finally, a discussion is also presented regarding the applicability and pertinence of frequency-related grid requirements for PV-PPs in the case of real power systems. The investigation is based on the isolated power system of northern Chile. The obtained results indicate that in the case of major power imbalances, no significant effects arise on the system frequency response until PV penetration levels exceed approximately 20%. From a system security perspective, the problems arise for PV penetration levels of approximately 50%, in which case, the frequency response capability in PV-PPs would be justified during certain hours of the year. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamic response; frequency control; frequency stability; grid requirements; inertial response; photovoltaic generation dynamic response; frequency control; frequency stability; grid requirements; inertial response; photovoltaic generation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rahmann, C.; Castillo, A. Fast Frequency Response Capability of Photovoltaic Power Plants: The Necessity of New Grid Requirements and Definitions. Energies 2014, 7, 6306-6322.

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