Abstract: Crude bio-oil from pine chip fast pyrolysis was upgraded with olefins (1-octene, cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene, and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene) plus 1-butanol (iso-butanol, t-butanol and ethanol) at 120 °C using a silica sulfuric acid (SSA) catalyst that possesses a good catalytic activity and stability. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis showed that upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, phenols, polyhydric alcohols and carboxylic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rose from 2.5 to >3.5), removed the unpleasant odor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content dramatically decreased from 37.2% to about 7.0% and the heating value increased from 12.6 MJ·kg−1 to about 31.9 MJ·kg−1. This work has proved that bio-oil upgrading with a primary olefin plus 1-butanol is a feasible route where all the original heating value of the bio-oil plus the added olefin and alcohol are present in the resulting fuel.
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Zhang, Z.; Sui, S.; Wang, F.; Wang, Q.; Pittman, C.U., Jr. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid. Energies 2013, 6, 4531-4550.
Zhang Z, Sui S, Wang F, Wang Q, Pittman CU, Jr. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid. Energies. 2013; 6(9):4531-4550.
Zhang, Zhijun; Sui, Shujuan; Wang, Fengqiang; Wang, Qingwen; Pittman, Charles U., Jr. 2013. "Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid." Energies 6, no. 9: 4531-4550.