Energies 2013, 6(9), 4531-4550; doi:10.3390/en6094531
Article

Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid

Received: 28 May 2013; in revised form: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 14 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels 2013)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Crude bio-oil from pine chip fast pyrolysis was upgraded with olefins (1-octene, cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene, and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene) plus 1-butanol (iso-butanol, t-butanol and ethanol) at 120 °C using a silica sulfuric acid (SSA) catalyst that possesses a good catalytic activity and stability. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis showed that upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, phenols, polyhydric alcohols and carboxylic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rose from 2.5 to >3.5), removed the unpleasant odor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content dramatically decreased from 37.2% to about 7.0% and the heating value increased from 12.6 MJ·kg−1 to about 31.9 MJ·kg−1. This work has proved that bio-oil upgrading with a primary olefin plus 1-butanol is a feasible route where all the original heating value of the bio-oil plus the added olefin and alcohol are present in the resulting fuel.
Keywords: real bio-oil upgrading; silica sulfuric acid; oxygen-containing fuels; olefin; alcohol
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [405 KB, uploaded 2 September 2013 12:25 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Z.; Sui, S.; Wang, F.; Wang, Q.; Pittman, C.U., Jr. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid. Energies 2013, 6, 4531-4550.

AMA Style

Zhang Z, Sui S, Wang F, Wang Q, Pittman CU, Jr. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid. Energies. 2013; 6(9):4531-4550.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Zhijun; Sui, Shujuan; Wang, Fengqiang; Wang, Qingwen; Pittman, Charles U., Jr. 2013. "Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid." Energies 6, no. 9: 4531-4550.

Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert