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Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine
Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, Zurich 8092, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2013; in revised form: 5 July 2013 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.
Keywords: transportation; carbon dioxide emissions; hybrid-electric vehicle; dual-fuel; gas-diesel; natural gas
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Ott, T.; Onder, C.; Guzzella, L. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine. Energies 2013, 6, 3571-3592.
Ott T, Onder C, Guzzella L. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine. Energies. 2013; 6(7):3571-3592.
Ott, Tobias; Onder, Christopher; Guzzella, Lino. 2013. "Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine." Energies 6, no. 7: 3571-3592.