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Understanding the Mechanism of Cypress Liquefaction in Hot-Compressed Water through Characterization of Solid Residues
School of Grain and Food, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, China
State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
Institute of Biomass Chemistry and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2012; in revised form: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 February 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
Abstract: The mechanism of hydrothermal liquefaction of cypress was investigated by examining the effects of temperature and retention time on the characteristics of the solid residues remaining after liquefaction. The solid residues were divided into acid-soluble and acid-insoluble residues. Results showed the polymerization reactions also mainly occurred at low temperatures. The reactive fragments transformed into acid-insoluble solid residue in the form of carbon and oxygen through polymerization reactions. The process of cellulose degradation consists of two steps: an initial hydrolysis of the more solvent- accessible amorphous region and a later hydrolytic attack on the crystalline portion. Hemicelluloses were decomposed into small compounds during the initial stage of the cypress liquefaction process, and then these compounds may rearrange through polymerization to form acid-insoluble solid residues above 240 °C. The higher heating value of the solid residues obtained from liquefaction at 260–300 °C was 23.4–26.3 MJ/kg, indicating that they were suitable for combustion as a solid fuel.
Keywords: liquefaction; acid-insoluble solid residue; reaction mechanisms; sugar analysis
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Liu, H.-M.; Li, M.-F.; Yang, S.; Sun, R.-C. Understanding the Mechanism of Cypress Liquefaction in Hot-Compressed Water through Characterization of Solid Residues. Energies 2013, 6, 1590-1603.
Liu H-M, Li M-F, Yang S, Sun R-C. Understanding the Mechanism of Cypress Liquefaction in Hot-Compressed Water through Characterization of Solid Residues. Energies. 2013; 6(3):1590-1603.
Liu, Hua-Min; Li, Ming-Fei; Yang, Sheng; Sun, Run-Cang. 2013. "Understanding the Mechanism of Cypress Liquefaction in Hot-Compressed Water through Characterization of Solid Residues." Energies 6, no. 3: 1590-1603.