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Energies 2013, 6(12), 6352-6372; doi:10.3390/en6126352

Effect of Tower Shadow and Wind Shear in a Wind Farm on AC Tie-Line Power Oscillations of Interconnected Power Systems

1
School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
2
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstraede 101, Aalborg DK-9220, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
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Abstract

This paper describes a frequency domain approach for evaluating the impact of tower shadow and wind shear effects (TSWS) on tie-line power oscillations. A simplified frequency domain model of an interconnected power system with a wind farm is developed. The transfer function, which relates the tie-line power variation to the mechanical power variation of a wind turbine, and the expression of the maximum magnitude of tie-line power oscillations are derived to identify the resonant condition and evaluate the potential risk. The effects of the parameters on the resonant magnitude of the tie-line power are also discussed. The frequency domain analysis reveals that TSWS can excite large tie-line power oscillations if the frequency of TSWS approaches the tie-line resonant frequency, especially in the case that the wind farm is integrated into a relatively small grid and the tie-line of the interconnected system is weak. Furthermore, the results of the theoretical analysis are validated through time domain simulations conducted in the two-area four-generator system and the Western Electric Coordinating Council 127 bus system.
Keywords: wind power integration; interconnected power systems; tie-line power oscillations; forced power oscillation; low frequency oscillations; tower shadow and wind shear (TSWS) wind power integration; interconnected power systems; tie-line power oscillations; forced power oscillation; low frequency oscillations; tower shadow and wind shear (TSWS)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, J.; Hu, W.; Wang, X.; Chen, Z. Effect of Tower Shadow and Wind Shear in a Wind Farm on AC Tie-Line Power Oscillations of Interconnected Power Systems. Energies 2013, 6, 6352-6372.

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