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Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils
Department of Chemistry, GC University Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
Institute of Industrial biotechnology, GC University Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang-43400, Selangor, Malaysia
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2012; in revised form: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Abstract: The current study describes the emphatic use of response surface methodology for the optimized biodiesel production using chemical and enzymatic transesterification of rice bran and sunflower oils. Optimal biodiesel yields were determined to be 65.3 ± 2.0%, 73.4 ± 3.5%, 96.5 ± 1.6%, 89.3 ± 2.0% and 41.7 ± 3.9% for rice bran oil and 65.6 ± 1.2%, 82.1 ± 1.7%, 92.5 ± 2.8%, 72.6 ± 1.6% and 50.4 ± 2.5% for sunflower oil via the transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3,NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. Lipase, respectively. Based upon analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Response Surface plots significant impact of reaction parameters under study was ascertained. FTIR spectroscopic and HPLC methods were employed for monitoring the transesterification reaction progress while GC-MS analysis was performed to evaluate the compositional analysis of biodiesel. The fuel properties of both the rice bran and sunflower oil based biodiesel were shown to be technically compatible with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The monitoring of exhaust emission of synthesized biodiesels and their blends revealed a marked reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) levels, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions.
Keywords: feed stock oil; biodiesel; response surface methodology; optimization; emission levels; FTIR; GC-MS; fuel properties
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Mumtaz, M.W.; Adnan, A.; Anwar, F.; Mukhtar, H.; Raza, M.A.; Ahmad, F.; Rashid, U. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils. Energies 2012, 5, 3307-3328.
Mumtaz MW, Adnan A, Anwar F, Mukhtar H, Raza MA, Ahmad F, Rashid U. Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils. Energies. 2012; 5(9):3307-3328.
Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Adnan, Ahmad; Anwar, Farooq; Mukhtar, Hamid; Raza, Muhammad Asam; Ahmad, Farooq; Rashid, Umer. 2012. "Response Surface Methodology: An Emphatic Tool for Optimized Biodiesel Production Using Rice Bran and Sunflower Oils." Energies 5, no. 9: 3307-3328.