An addendum was published on 26 August 2009, see Energies 2009, 2(3), 695-696.

Energies 2009, 2(3), 504-530; doi:10.3390/en20300504
Review

A Review of Ultrahigh Efficiency III-V Semiconductor Compound Solar Cells: Multijunction Tandem, Lower Dimensional, Photonic Up/Down Conversion and Plasmonic Nanometallic Structures

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Received: 26 June 2009; in revised form: 7 July 2009 / Accepted: 7 July 2009 / Published: 13 July 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Cells)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Solar cells are a promising renewable, carbon-free electric energy resource to address the fossil fuel shortage and global warming. Energy conversion efficiencies around 40% have been recently achieved in laboratories using III-V semiconductor compounds as photovoltaic materials. This article reviews the efforts and accomplishments made for higher efficiency III-V semiconductor compound solar cells, specifically with multijunction tandem, lower-dimensional, photonic up/down conversion, and plasmonic metallic structures. Technological strategies for further performance improvement from the most efficient (Al)InGaP/(In)GaAs/Ge triple-junction cells including the search for 1.0 eV bandgap semiconductors are discussed. Lower-dimensional systems such as quantum well and dot structures are being intensively studied to realize multiple exciton generation and multiple photon absorption to break the conventional efficiency limit. Implementation of plasmonic metallic nanostructures manipulating photonic energy flow directions to enhance sunlight absorption in thin photovoltaic semiconductor materials is also emerging.
Keywords: solar energy; renewable energy; clean energy; solar cells; photovoltaics; semiconductors; multijunction; quantum wells; quantum dots; surface plasmons
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tanabe, K. A Review of Ultrahigh Efficiency III-V Semiconductor Compound Solar Cells: Multijunction Tandem, Lower Dimensional, Photonic Up/Down Conversion and Plasmonic Nanometallic Structures. Energies 2009, 2, 504-530.

AMA Style

Tanabe K. A Review of Ultrahigh Efficiency III-V Semiconductor Compound Solar Cells: Multijunction Tandem, Lower Dimensional, Photonic Up/Down Conversion and Plasmonic Nanometallic Structures. Energies. 2009; 2(3):504-530.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tanabe, Katsuaki. 2009. "A Review of Ultrahigh Efficiency III-V Semiconductor Compound Solar Cells: Multijunction Tandem, Lower Dimensional, Photonic Up/Down Conversion and Plasmonic Nanometallic Structures." Energies 2, no. 3: 504-530.

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