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Energies 2018, 11(8), 2157; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082157

Experimental Study on the Performance of Controllers for the Hydrogen Gas Production Demanded by an Internal Combustion Engine

1
Posgrado del Tecnológico Nacional de México/Centro Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico. Int. Internado Palmira S/N, Palmira C.P.62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62324, Mexico
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Tecnológico Nacional de México/Centro Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico. Int. Internado Palmira S/N, Palmira C.P.62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62324, Mexico
3
CONACyT-Tecnológico Nacional de México/CENIDET. Interior Internado Palmira S/N, Col. Palmira C.P.62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos 63324, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
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Abstract

This work presents the design and application of two control techniques—a model predictive control (MPC) and a proportional integral derivative control (PID), both in combination with a multilayer perceptron neural network—to produce hydrogen gas on-demand, in order to use it as an additive in a spark ignition internal combustion engine. For the design of the controllers, a control-oriented model, identified with the Hammerstein technique, was used. For the implementation of both controllers, only 1% of the overall air entering through the throttle valve reacted with hydrogen gas, allowing maintenance of the hydrogen–air stoichiometric ratio at 34.3 and the air–gasoline ratio at 14.6. Experimental results showed that the average settling time of the MPC controller was 1 s faster than the settling time of the PID controller. Additionally, MPC presented better reference tracking, error rates and standard deviation of 1.03 × 10 7 and 1.06 × 10 14 , and had a greater insensitivity to measurement noise, resulting in greater robustness to disturbances. Finally, with the use of hydrogen as an additive to gasoline, there was an improvement in thermal and combustion efficiency of 4% and 0.6%, respectively, and an increase in power of 545 W, translating into a reduction of fossil fuel use. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen production control; digital PID; model predictive control hydrogen production control; digital PID; model predictive control
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Cervantes-Bobadilla, M.; Escobar-Jiménez, R.F.; Gómez-Aguilar, J.F.; García-Morales, J.; Olivares-Peregrino, V.H. Experimental Study on the Performance of Controllers for the Hydrogen Gas Production Demanded by an Internal Combustion Engine. Energies 2018, 11, 2157.

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