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Energies 2018, 11(8), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082069

Layout Optimization Design of Two Vortex Induced Piezoelectric Energy Converters (VIPECs) Using the Combined Kriging Surrogate Model and Particle Swarm Optimization Method

1,†,* , 1,†
,
1,†
and
2,†
1
School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
2
Laboratoire Roberval, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 60200 Compiègne, France
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract

The layout configuration of Vortex Induced Piezoelectric Energy Converters (VIPECs) is essential to improve its overall performance. Based on the formations of migrating geese, the configuration is characterized by two nondimensionalized layout parameters. A number of sampled points for different configurations are simulated with the two-dimensional Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The influence of layout configurations on VIPECs’ lift force and wake structure is investigated and the generated open circuit output voltage is obtained through the derived output voltage equation. The response surface model of the output voltage of both the leading VIPEC and the following VIPEC and their summation are established using the Kriging surrogate model based on the obtained simulation results. Then, optimal layout parameters are found through the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, and its predicted result is compared with that of the CFD simulation. The simulation and optimization results reveal that the output voltage is not always consistent with the lift force on the plate. When VIPECs are placed in parallel with a certain spacing, their overall performance increases. The summation of output voltage is predicted to improve by approximately 63.7% compared to two single VIPECs when they are placed at the optimal layout parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: vortex shedding; piezoelectric energy converter; lift coefficient; separation angle; open circuit output voltage; Computatinal Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Kriging surrogate model; Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) vortex shedding; piezoelectric energy converter; lift coefficient; separation angle; open circuit output voltage; Computatinal Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Kriging surrogate model; Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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An, X.; Song, B.; Mao, Z.; Ma, C. Layout Optimization Design of Two Vortex Induced Piezoelectric Energy Converters (VIPECs) Using the Combined Kriging Surrogate Model and Particle Swarm Optimization Method. Energies 2018, 11, 2069.

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