Next Article in Journal
Complex Heat Pump Operational Mode Identification and Comparison for Use in Electric Vehicles
Next Article in Special Issue
Energy-Efficient Clusters for Object Tracking Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Design Issues for Claw Pole Machines with Soft Magnetic Composite Cores
Previous Article in Special Issue
Non-Distorted Optimization Spectrum Analysis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2018, 11(8), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11081999

Risk Analysis of Lightning and Surge Protection Devices for Power Energy Structures

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the IEEE ICASI 2018)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3598 KB, uploaded 2 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

This paper studies the risk data and protection measurements of lightning based on the IEC62305 standard. In addition, Visual Basic (VB) is used to build a lightning risk calculation program with a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The data structure, including environment data, line data, zone data, economic data, and protection measures is designed to simulate risk of loss of human life (R1) and risk of loss of economic value (R4). To achieve the most economical protection structure design, additional protection measurements and annual savings are considered. In the practical application, the main purpose is to discuss effective protection distances of surge protective devices (SPDs) for low-voltage power distribution. This paper takes advantage of Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) to simulate the voltage of equipment with different types of loads and length of the cable. After using the protection measures, the value of risk of human life reduces form 21.299 × 10−5 to 0.439 × 10−5 and the value of risk of economic value reduces from 2696.754 × 10−5 to 98.062 × 10−5. The results mean that the protection measures let the values of the risk below the tolerance. By considering the annual cost saving. Assume the cost of protection measures, the interest rate, the depreciation rate, and the maintenance rate are 150,000 $, 4%, 5%, and 1%, respectively. The annual cost before using protective measures, the annual cost after using protective measures, the annual cost of protective measures, and the annual cost saving are $925,000, $33,635, $15,000 and $876,365, respectively. Consequently, it is feasible that the simulation result can provide users with great suggestions to choose the best installation location and achieve the most effective protection design. View Full-Text
Keywords: lightning risk; protection measures; surge protective device lightning risk; protection measures; surge protective device
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, C.-H.; Muna, Y.B.; Chen, Y.-T.; Kuo, C.-C.; Chang, H.-Y. Risk Analysis of Lightning and Surge Protection Devices for Power Energy Structures. Energies 2018, 11, 1999.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top