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Energies 2018, 11(7), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071812

Optimal Charging Strategy Based on Model Predictive Control in Electric Vehicle Parking Lots Considering Voltage Stability

1
Hyosung Corporation, 74, Simin-daero, Dongan-gu, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 14080, Korea
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Inha University, 100, Inha-ro, Michuhol-gu, Incheon 22212, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Abstract

Recently, electric vehicles (EVs) using energy storage have gained attention over conventional vehicles using fossil fuels owing to their advantages such as being eco-friendly and reducing the operation cost. In a power system, an EV, which operates through the energy stored in the battery, can be used as a type of load or energy source; hence, an optimal operation of EV clusters in power systems is being extensively studied. This paper proposes an optimal strategy for charging EVs in parking lots. This strategy is based on the model predictive control (MPC) framework due to the uncertainty of loads, renewable energy sources, and EVs, and considers the voltage stability of the distribution systems. EV chargers in the parking lot charge EVs to minimize the charging cost, which results in a sudden increase in charge load at a certain time. As a result, an excessive voltage drop may occur in the power system at that time. Therefore, we need to minimize the charging cost of EVs while preventing an excessive voltage drop in the power system. The parking lot is stochastically modeled to consider EV uncertainty under the MPC framework. In the MPC framework, the charging schedule of an EV charger in the parking lot is optimized by considering both voltage stability and charging cost minimization in real time. The charging constraints on voltage stability are updated through parameters that change in real time, and thus, errors caused by uncertainty can be reduced. Subsequently, this charging strategy is applied to multiple chargers through Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed charging strategy is verified based on MATLAB/Simulink. View Full-Text
Keywords: power system; electric vehicle; parking lot; model predictive control; voltage stability; Monte Carlo simulation power system; electric vehicle; parking lot; model predictive control; voltage stability; Monte Carlo simulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Choi, B.-R.; Lee, W.-P.; Won, D.-J. Optimal Charging Strategy Based on Model Predictive Control in Electric Vehicle Parking Lots Considering Voltage Stability. Energies 2018, 11, 1812.

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