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Energies 2018, 11(7), 1805; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071805

An Adaptive-Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy for an Extended-Range Electric Bus Based on Target Driving Cycle Generation

State Key Laboratory of Automotive Dynamic Simulation and Control, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China
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Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automation Control and Energy Efficiency in Complex Systems)
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Abstract

Energy management strategies based on instantaneous optimization have been widely used in hybrid/plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV/PHEV) in order to improve fuel economy while guaranteeing vehicle performance. In this study, an adaptive-equivalent consumption minimum strategy (A-ECMS) based on target driving cycle (TDC) generation was proposed for an extended-range electric bus (E-REB) operating on fixed routes. Firstly, a Hamilton function and a co-state equation for E-REB were determined according to the Pontryagin Minimum Principle (PMP). Then a series of TDCs were generated using Markov chain, and the optimal solutions under different initial state of charges (SOCs) were obtained using the PMP algorithm, forming the optimal initial co-state map. Thirdly, an adaptive co-state function consisting of fixed and dynamic terms was designed. The co-state map was interpolated using the initial SOC data and the vehicle driving data obtained by an Intelligent Transport System, and thereby the initial co-state values were solved and used as the fixed term. A segmented SOC reference curve was put forward according to the optimal SOC changing curves under different initial SOCs solved by using PMP. The dynamic term was determined using a PI controlling method and by real-time adjusting the co-states to follow the reference curve. Finally with the generated TDCs, the control effect of A-ECMS was compared with PMP and Constant-ECMS, which was showed A-ECMS provided the final SOC closer to the pre-set value and fully used the power of the batteries. The oil consumption solutions were close to the PMP optimized results and thereby the oil depletion was reduced. View Full-Text
Keywords: extended-range electric bus; adaptive-equivalent consumption minimum strategy; Markov chain; target driving cycles; SOC reference curve; energy management system extended-range electric bus; adaptive-equivalent consumption minimum strategy; Markov chain; target driving cycles; SOC reference curve; energy management system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, H.; Wang, C.; Zhao, X.; Guo, C. An Adaptive-Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy for an Extended-Range Electric Bus Based on Target Driving Cycle Generation. Energies 2018, 11, 1805.

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