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Energies 2018, 11(7), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071761

Integrated Energy and Catalyst Thermal Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

1
Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Precision Drive & Control, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330099, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmissions, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Fundamentals and Conversion)

Abstract

With plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), the catalyst temperature is below the light-off temperature due to reduced engine load, extended engine off period, and frequent engine on/off shifting. The conversion efficiency of a three-way catalyst (TWC) and tailpipe emissions were proven to depend heavily on the temperature of the catalyst. The existing energy management strategy (EMS) of the PHEVs focuses on the improvement of fuel efficiency and emissions based on hot engine characteristics, but neglects the effect of catalyst temperature on tailpipe emissions. This paper presents a new EMS that incorporates a catalyst thermal management method. First, an additional cost is established to implement additional constraints on catalyst temperature, and then the global cost function is created using this additional cost and the fuel consumption. Second, we find the global optimal solution using Pontryagin’s minimum principle method, which provides an optimal control policy and state trajectories. Then, based on the analysis of the optimal control policy, an engine on/off filter (eng on/off filter) is introduced to command the engine on/off shifting. This filter plays an important role in adjusting both the energy and catalyst thermal management strategy for PHEVs. Finally, a practical approach based on the eng on/off filter is developed, and a genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the time constants of this filter. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach‘s fuel consumption increased slightly, but the tailpipe emissions of HC (hydrocarbons), CO (carbon monoxide) and NOx (nitrogen oxide) significantly decreased compared with the standard approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; energy management strategy (EMS); catalyst thermal management; Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP); engine on/off command plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; energy management strategy (EMS); catalyst thermal management; Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP); engine on/off command
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zeng, Y.; Cai, Y.; Chu, C.; Kou, G.; Gao, W. Integrated Energy and Catalyst Thermal Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Energies 2018, 11, 1761.

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