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Energies 2018, 11(6), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11061522

Performance and Emission Analysis of Rubber Seed, Palm, and Their Combined Blend in a Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine

1
Centre for Automotive Research and Electric Mobility, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, Blue Nile University, 143 Er Roseires, Ad Damazin, Sudan
3
Advance Engineering Centre, University of Brighton; Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK
4
Center of Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Biomass Processing Laboratory; Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Energy)
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Abstract

In consideration of its vast resources in Malaysia, the potential use of a nonedible biodiesel source from rubber seed oil (RSO) is explored. However, a mixture with a high saturation content feedstock is required to increase its oxidation stability, which is caused by its 78.93% unsaturation content. Two blends of 20% and 50% v/v rubber seed biodiesel (RB) or palm biodiesel (PB) and varying percentage mixtures of these two feedstock oils biodiesel (RPB) were evaluated on combustion performance in a 55 kW multi-cylinder diesel engine at full load conditions. The results showed that feedstock blending offered benefits in terms of fuel properties enhancement, improved engine performance, and reduced emissions. In comparison to RB, RPB showed higher brake power (BP) of 1.18–2.97% and lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 0.85–3.69%, smoke opacity (11.89–14.19%), carbon monoxide (CO) of 2.48–6.93%, hydrocarbon (HC) of 2.36–9.34%, and Nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of 2.34–5.93%. The cylinder pressures and heat release rates (HRR) of RPB blends were 8.47–11.43% and 36.02–46.61% higher than diesel, respectively. The start of combustion angles (SOC) of RB and RPB blends were from −13 to −15 °C and from −13.2 to −15.6 crank angle degree (°CA) before top dead center (BTDC), but the combustion delays were 6–8 °C and 5.4–7.8 °C shorter when compared to diesel fuel which were −10 °C BTDC and 11 °C, respectively. It can be concluded that RPB blends showed better performance and emissions over the individual rubber seed and palm biodiesel blends and can replace diesel fuel in unmodified engines. View Full-Text
Keywords: rubber seed-palm blend; oxidation stability; NO reduction; combustion rubber seed-palm blend; oxidation stability; NO reduction; combustion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Adam, I.K.; Abdul Aziz, A.R.; Heikal, M.R.; Yusup, S.; Firmansyah; Ahmad, A.S.; Zainal Abidin, E.Z. Performance and Emission Analysis of Rubber Seed, Palm, and Their Combined Blend in a Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine. Energies 2018, 11, 1522.

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